Bread, it’s been a staple forever it would seem. If you’ve read Tuesday’s post you’ll know more about all of that, where it came from and how it all came to where it is today.
Bread is part of the Grains and Starches Food Group. They are an important source of energy and nutrients to the human diets, particularly B Vitamins and Vitamin E in addition to minerals such as copper, iron and selenium. Moreover, grains are a good source of fibre which contributes to the maintenance of good health in many ways, such as reducing the risk of heart disease and diabetes, controlling blood sugar, lowering cholesterol as well as maintaining a healthy weight.
Nowadays, there are so many different kinds of bread available and they come in all different sizes, shapes and colours and even flavours. The question therefore is, with so many options on the shelves– which one do you choose?!!
In today’s post, I’ll give you a glossary of grains terminology to help you demystify some of the terms you might see or hear about as found on packaging and what they mean when trying to decide which loaf of bread to buy.
But first, here is a very quick overview of the anatomy of a grain. A grain is made up of 3 parts:
- Bran – outer layer or protective shell of the grain. This part provides fibre as well as some B-vitamins and minerals.
- Endosperm – middle part of the grain, and the largest component, which acts as a food source for the seed. This part provides carbohydrates (starches) and proteins.
- Germ – innermost and most nutrient dense part. This is where you will find the key nutrients of the grain.
Anatomy of a Grain
Now here is the overview of what terms you might see when you go to buy a loaf of bread and what you need to know so you can make an informed choice:
Whole Grain – all three parts of the grain kernel (bran, endosperm, germ) are found in relatively the same proportions as in nature. Whole grains undergo the least amount of processing of any grains. This is the most advantageous choice from a nutrition perspective. It is recommended that at least 50% of our grains be whole grain. Look at the ingredients for the word “whole” in front of grains to make sure you are getting a whole grain product and try and choose whole grains whenever you can!
Whole Wheat –made from the entire wheat kernel. This makes it sound like it is a whole grain, however in Canada, whole wheat flour has a product can labeled “whole wheat” has to contain only about 95% of the wheat kernel, so some of the germ and bran may be missing so.Whole wheat flour is first processed to separate the parts of the kernel, then the parts of the grain are recombined to make the flour “whole” again. Up to 5% of the bran and germ can be left out, which is done to decrease the risk of rancidity and improve shelf life. Thus when a product is “whole wheat” it may not actually be a “whole grain”. Check the ingredient list to be sure!
White/Refined Flour – the bran and the germ are stripped from the flour and only the endosperm (the soft starchy portion) is left through processing. Why remove these important components? One reason is that it improves the shelf life of the flour. Another, refined grains provide a softer and lighter texture to baked goods; however with the bran and the germ removed you miss out on the real nutritional value to be gained from eating grains such as the vitamins, minerals and fibre. Moreover, because you are missing the fibre found in whole grains, refined grains will cause a greater and faster rise in blood sugar and do not keep you full as long. Obviously, it is not possible to use whole grains for everything (i.e. cakes and pastries) but it is encouraged to limit the amount of refined grains in the diet as much as possible.
Enriched/Fortified – refined flour that has had the nutrients that were lost when the bran and germ were removed are added back into the flour. This means that enriched flours are slightly more nutritional than straight white flour but still falls short when compared to whole grain flour.
Multigrain – made from different kinds of grains (i.e. wheat, oat, rye, corn etc.). Note that this does not mean the bread is made from whole-grains; you will have to check the ingredient list to make sure.
Sprouted Grains – the sprouting process is stimulated under controlled conditions before the grain is used to make bread. You will still get all the benefits of whole grains, because all parts of the grain must be present, but in addition, enzymes activated as the sprouting process begins break down some of the starches in the endosperm making the grains easier to digest and making the vitamins more bioavailable. Ezekiel Bread is an example of a bread made from sprouted grains which is it’s claim to fame.
Gluten-Free – bread made from grains that do not contain gluten (these are wheat, rye and barley). Usually a mix of different grains such as rice, corn, tapioca are used to create a similar quality product to those that are made using gluten containing grains (more to come on what gluten is!).
Artisan Breads – specialty breads made from a variety of different grains to create different flavours and textures. They may or may not have whole grains. Just because a bread loos “special” or is darker in colour it is not a good indicator of the true nutritional quality of the grain product.
In the end, we all have a choice and a right to choose what we eat. The important thing is that you take the time to consider your options and take responsibility for your choices. A healthy diet is about balance and moderation so having refined grains once in a while is okay. Enjoy and be grateful for what you eat! Go out and try new types of bread and ways to have your grains. There are so many good things to be gained from grains!
Want more? For more information on whole grains and choosing grains visit: https://wholegrainscouncil.org/